Saturday, 2 October 2010

In January 2009 the administration of the Bavarian Municipality of
Selbitz gathered relevant data from 251 residents as part of a health
survey. Subsequently, the data were assessed based on the exposure
levels of cell phone radiation.
In a next step, the exposure levels based on residential location and
available RF measurements of local cell phone radiation levels were
used to classify participants into exposure groups.
The mean radiation exposure level of the highest exposure group in
Selbitz (1.2 V/m) was substantially higher than that of the study
population in the QUEBEB study (1) of the German Mobile Phone
Programme (mean value 0,07 V/m). For such symptoms as sleep
problems, depressions, cerebral symptoms, joint problems,
infections, skin problems, cardiovascular problems as well as
disorders of the visual and auditory systems and the gastrointestinal
tract, a significant dose-response relationship was observed in
relation to objectively determined exposure levels. The impact of
microwave radiation on the human nervous system serves as an
Carried out without outside funds, the study presented here provides
a protocol concept that allows physicians and municipalities to
cooperate and assess the potential human health impact of cell
phone base stations located within residential areas.
Keywords: symptoms, cell phone radiation, wireless technologies, doseresponse
Participating offices: Dr. Brömel/Pozder, Schulstraße 4, 95197 Schauenstein;
Dr. Jahn, Brunnenstraße 1, 95152 Selbitz; Dr. Müller, Wildenberg 22, 95152
Deutsche Zusammenfassung
In der bayerischen Stadt Selbitz wurden im Januar 2009 zuerst durch die
Gemeinde im Rahmen einer Gesundheitsbefragung relevante Daten von 251
Einwohnern erfasst und anschließend daran nach Belastungsstärken durch
Mobilfunkwellen ausgewertet.
Die Belastungswerte wurden in einem zweiten Schritt an hand von Wohnort
und vorliegenden Messdaten der örtlichen Mobilfunkstrahlung zur
Stratifizierung der Teilnehmer in Belastungsgruppen verwendet.
Die mittlere Strahlenbelastung der höchstbelasteten Gruppen in Selbitz (1,2
V/m) lag deutlich höher als die untersuchte Studienpopulation der QUEBEBElectromagnetic
Fields Original Scientific Paper
Original German umwelt-medizin-gesellschaft ⏐23⏐2/2010 2
Studie (1) des Deutschen Mobilfunkforschungsprogramms (Mittelwert DMF
O,07V Im). Fürdie Beschwerden Schlafstörung, Depressionen, cerebrale
Symptome, Gelenkbeschwerden, Infekte, Hautveränderungen, Herz-Kreislauf
Störungen sowie Störungen des optischen und akustischen Sensoriums und
des Magen-Darm-Traktes besteht eine signifikante dosiswirkungsabhängige
Korrelation zu objektiv bestimmten Expositionslagen, die mit dem Einfluss
von Mikrowellen auf das Nervensystem des Menschen erklärt wird.
Die vorliegende fremdmittelfrei erstellte Arbeit gibt einen Konzeptentwurf
vor, mit dem Ärzte und Gemeindeverwaltungen gemeinsam den
gesundheitlich relevanten Einfluss von innerörtlichen Mobilfunksendern
abschätzen können.
Over the last decades wireless technologies have gained in importance. As a
result, however, TV and radio stations are no longer the broadcasting sources
that cause the highest exposure levels in residential areas; now it is cell
phone base stations. Since 2003 the German Commission on Radiological
Protection (SSK) has explicitly pointed out that there is a lack of knowledge
about the consequences of these technologies on human health (2).
In Upper Franconian Selbitz, the municipality collaborated with local medical
offices1 whereby two separate data sets—a general health survey and
available RF measurements—were used to correlate gathered symptom
scores with independently available RF emission measurements of relevant
cell phone radiation.
Materials and Methods
Selbitz in Upper Franconia is located in the northeast of Bavaria, Germany,
having a total population of 4,644 (2,171 male and 2,473 female) on 31
December 2008 (3).
Cell phone coverage is available across the entire municipality. In the center,
cell phone transmitters of two service providers are located in the street
Feldstraße 28 and the installation of a third telecommunication service
provider is located in the
street Burgstraße 26a (4).
Fig. 1:
Cell Phone Transmitters on
Top of the Multistory
Building at Feldstraße 28,
Selbitz, Upper Franconia
Electromagnetic Fields Original Scientific Paper
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As part of a survey in 2009, Selbitz municipality sent standardized health
questionnaires by mail to 1,080 persons within the municipality and
surrounding areas. The participants were aware that they could receive a
questionnaire when they lived within a 400-m radius of the cell phone base
station at Feldstraße 28 or also outside of this radius. There were no personal
interviews. A total of 88 sets of information on health symptoms were
gathered, using a quantitative scale of zero to five. The symptom groups
based on clinical entities were summarized as clusters for the assessment
(Table 1).
Table 1: Summary of Symptom Groups Based on Clinical Entities
The cover letter of the invitation to participate stated that participant
confidentiality is ensured. The questionnaires could be returned or sent back
to Selbitz municipality or the local doctor’s offices. After the questionnaires
were returned, the personal information form was separately filed from the
symptom information form at the doctor’s office of Dr. Eger, Naila. The
anonymously coded symptom information forms were then passed on for
data entry to the administrative staff of Selbitz municipality. The staff of the
IT department entered the anonymized data into an Excel table for analysis.
On the personal information form, the existence of a DECT phone in the
residence was indicated by a simple checkmark, which was also entered into
the data pool.
Symptom Group Symptom Number
1 Sleep disorders 1-5
2 Symptoms of depression 6,7,18-23
3 Headaches 8
4 Cerebral affections 8-12
5 Concentration difficulties 24-29
6 Joint problems 30-34
7 Toothaches 35
8 Infections 36-41
9 Skin problems 42-47
10 Dizziness 55
11 Cardiovascular problems 48-52
12 Auditory system,
Disturbance of equilibrium
13 Visual problems 62-67
14 Nosebleed 68
15 Hormonal imbalances 70-74
16 Weight gain 75
17 Weight loss 76
18 Gastrointestinal problems 77-81
19 Bedwetting 85
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All participants who returned their questionnaires were classified into groups
based on their residential address. The circles drawn in Figure 2 show
distances of 100 m, 200 m, 300 m, or 400 m from the two cell transmitters
installed on the building of Feldstraße 28, identifying the groups 1 to 4. One
control group (group 5), which can be classified as low-emission, includes
participants outside the 400-m radius directly in Selbitz and also from
surrounding areas that are further away from the municipality.
According to the elevation map, the landscape around the transmitter is level
toward the west and east, gently rises toward the north, and declines with 7°
to 9° toward the south.
The cell phone facilities of the service providers are located at a height of
19.20 m, 20.20 m, and 23.50 m above ground with the actual transmitters at
19.35 m and 22.70 m. The down tilt of the transmitters is given with 8°. The
frequency ranges used are at about 940 MHz and 1850 MHz (5).
Under these conditions, the area where the main beam touches the ground is
located almost 200 m away from the transmitters. Within the 200-m radius
additional side lobes are to be expected.
Fig. 2: The map from the land title office shows in the center of the
concentric circles the cell transmitters at Feldstraße 28 in Selbitz.
(Source: 5, With kind permission of Selbitz municipality)
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Testing Situation and Measurement Results
Based on the testing report by the accredited company ECL, mean exposure
values of the cell phone radiation could be assigned to the individual
exposure groups (6). For the groups 1 and 2 the mean value is 1.17 V/m, for
the groups 3 and 4 0.7 V/m.
The testing results for the area outside the 400-m radius were on average at
0.18 V/m and serve as a reference value. Weidesgrün area showed the
lowest measurements with 0.01 V/m.
The analysis is performed by using a two-tailed t-test of two unrelated
samples for a total of 19 symptom scores of the individual groups 1 through
5 to test the null hypothesis that the symptom scores of the compared
groups are evenly distributed and thus independent of the radiation effect
The comparison of the health-relevant data was carried out based on two
A) Comparison of the participant groups 1 to 4 within the 400-m radius of
the transmitter location to the control group outside the 400-m radius in
Selbitz/surrounding areas.
B) Comparison of the participant groups within the 400-m radius of the
transmitter location, comparing the highest-exposure groups 1 and 2 to
the groups 3 and 4 further away.
A total of 255 persons above the age of 18 participated in the survey; 4
questionnaires could not be evaluated. This corresponds with a response rate
of 23% from 1,090 questionnaires sent out. In total, the groups 1 to 4 close
to the transmitter had a response rate of 22% and the control group’s rate
was 27%, thus displaying no significant difference in the response rate
(Table 2).
For all participants the gender ratio of 43% male and 57% female applies,
which roughly corresponds with the ratio of the statistically registered
inhabitants of Selbitz with 47% male and 53% female (Table 3).
For groups 1 through 4, the control group 5, and persons in Selbitz from the
age of 18, the average age is 54.5, 52.0, and 53.5 years.
The age distribution in 5-year increments corresponds with the total
population in Selbitz (Table 3, Figure 3a-e). The survey participants, thereby,
represent an age-representative sample of the total population of all
inhabitants of Selbitz from age 18.
Within the 400-m radius around the transmitter, a higher symptom rate
could be documented for 14 out of 19 symptom groups in the highest
exposure groups 1 and 2 close to the transmitter compared to groups 3 and
4 further away from the transmitter (Table 4). The difference is statistically
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Mailouts Responses
Comparison of
incl. Control Group 5
(chi-square test)
1 125 45 (36.0%) 80 (64.0%) n.s.**
2 144 37 (25.7%) 107 (74.3%) n.s.
3 281 60 (21.4%) 221 (78.6%) n.s.
4 273 38 (14.0%) 235 (86.0%9 p < 0.01 (chi2)
Group 5 254 71 (28.0%) 183 (72.0%)
Sum 1077* 251 826
Table 2: Distribution of Questionnaires in Groups 1 to 4 and Control Group 5
according to Responses and Nonresponses.
With the exception of the low response rate in group 4, the
differences between the responders/nonresponders of the individual
groups and the control group 5 are not statistically significant.
*Three persons of the 1,080 surveys sent out could not be
** n.s. = not significant
Number Gender
(in %)
Age in
Levels of Cell
in V/m
1 45 47/53 57.5/57 0-100 m
2 37 41/59 52.0/52 100-200 m
1.17 V/m
3 60 40/60 55.0/57 200-300 m
4 38 42/57 53.5/52 300-400 m
0.70 V/m
5 71 44/56 52.0/52 > 400 m 0.18 V/m
Selbitz* 4644 47/53 53.5/52
Table 3: Overview of Investigated Groups Based on Gender, Age, Residential
Location, and Exposure Level. Groups 1-4 with a total of 180
participants are located within the 400-m radius of the transmitter.
The 71 participants of control group 5 are further away than 400 m.
Both the gender distribution as well as the comparison of age
groups does not statistically differ from the total population of
* For the comparison of the mean age only persons above the age
of 18 were chosen from the Selbitz population. Total population of
Selbitz: 4,644; Inhabitants above age 18: 3,890.
** Age values are given within 5-year groups.
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Group 1 Group 2
Group 3 Group 4
Control Group 5
Fig. 3a-e: Age Distribution in Groups 1-4 and Control Group 5 in 5-year
Electromagnetic Fields Original Scientific Paper
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Comparison of
Groups 1 to 4
(0-400 m/n=180)
to control group 5
(> 400 m/n=71)
Comparison of
Groups 1 and 2
to groups 3 and 4
(200-400 m/n=98)
Symptoms Significance level
p (t-test)
Significance level
p (t-test)
1 Sleep problems 0.001 0.001
2 Symptoms of depression 0.001 0.001
3 Headaches n.s. 0.001
4 Cerebral affections 0.001 0.001
5 Concentration difficulties n.s. 0.001
6 Joint problems 0.01 0.001
7 Toothaches n.s. n.s.
8 Infections 0.01 0.001
9 Skin problems 0.001 0.001
10 Dizziness n.s. 0.01
11 Cardiovascular problems 0.001 0.001
12 Auditory system
Disturbance of equilibrium 0.01 0.001
13 Visual problems 0.01 0.001
14 Nosebleed n.s. 0.01
15 Hormonal imbalances 0.05 n.s.
16 Weight gain n.s. n.s.
17 Weight loss n.s. n.s.
18 Gastrointestinal problems 0.01 0.001
19 Bedwetting n.s. n.s. = not significant
Table 4: Specific Symptoms of Study Participants in Relation to Distance
from Emission Source
A) Comparison of participant groups 1 to 4 around the transmitter to
control group outside 400-m radius in Selbitz/surrounding areas
B) Comparison of participant groups within 400-m radius of
transmitter. Groups 1 and 2 with the highest exposure are
compared to groups 3 and 4 with a lower exposure level further
away from the transmitter. Exposure levels for groups 1 and 2 were
1.17 V/m, for groups 3 and 4 0.7 V/m, and for control group 5 0.18
In comparison to the control group, significant (p < 0.01, t-test) differences
were found for the following symptom groups in the four exposure groups 1
to 4 located close to the transmitter: sleep problems, symptoms of
depression, cerebral symptoms, joint problems, infections, skin problems,
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cardiovascular problems, disorders of the visual and auditory system as well
as hormone system and also gastrointestinal problems. The control
symptoms “toothaches” and “bedwetting” were not significant (Table 4).
An overview of the documented mean values for all 19 symptoms or
symptom scores is shown in Figure 4. The highest mean values are found
mostly in the two highest exposure groups 1 and 2.
Fig. 4: Comparison of Specific Symptoms to Field Strengths
The spatial representation shows the 19 symptom scores on the yaxis
where the mean value of each symptom score is plotted
quantitatively. On the z-axis the exposure groups 1 to 5 are shown.
In Figure 5 and 8, the symptom scores for sleep problems, symptoms of
depression, joint problems and cardiovascular problems are shown with their
mean values and 95% confidence intervals. In a highly visual way, the
significant relationships from Table 4 become obvious here.
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Fig. 5:
Control Symptom Score 1 for
Sleep Problems for Groups 1-4
and Control Group 5
On the y-axis the mean values
of the symptom scores are
shown; the vertical bars at the
result points represent the
95% confidence intervals.
Fig. 6:
Control Symptom Score 2 for
Symptoms of Depression for
Groups 1-4 and Control Group
On the y-axis the mean values
of the symptom scores are
shown; the vertical bars at the
result points represent the
95% confidence intervals.
Fig. 7:
Control Symptom Score 6 for
Joint Problems for Groups 1-4
and Control Group 5
On the y-axis the mean values
of the symptom scores are
shown; the vertical bars at the
result points represent the
95% confidence intervals.
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Fig. 8:
Control Symptom Score 11 for
Cardiovascular Problems for
Groups 1-4 and Control Group
On the y-axis the mean values
of the symptom scores are
shown; the vertical bars at the
result points represent the
95% confidence intervals.
Fig. 9:
Control Symptom Score 7 for
Toothaches for Groups 1-4
and Control Group 5
On the y-axis the mean values
of the symptom scores are
shown; the vertical bars at the
result points represent the
95% confidence intervals.
Fig. 10:
Control Symptom Score 19 for
Bedwetting for Groups 1-4 and
Control Group 5
On the y-axis the mean values
of the symptom scores are
shown; the vertical bars at the
result points represent the
95% confidence intervals.
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The symptoms “toothaches” and “bedwetting” served as controls in order to
validate with these radiation-independent symptoms the plausibility of the
participants’ responses. There were no significant differences found for
groups 1 and 2 in comparison to groups 3 and 4 or to control group 5,
respectively (Table 4).
In a second step, we investigated if, within the 400-m radius, documented
symptom scores are related to the distance or measured exposure level.
In Figure 11 the mean values are shown, comparing group 1 and 2 (upper
black line) to group 3 and 4 (lower gray line).
Except for the symptoms toothache, hormone imbalance, weight gain, weight
loss, and bedwetting, significant differences were found (p < 0.01; t-test).
Among the study participants a significant dose-response relationship was
found between the theoretically calculated or measured exposure level and
the symptom score levels.
Fig. 11: Comparison of Groups 1 and 2 near the Transmitter to Groups 3 and
4 further away within the 400-m Radius
The numbers a shade lighter represent the nonsignificant symptom
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Data Gathering of DECT Phone Use
In the personal information form, participants could checkmark whether they
have a DECT phone in their household. Out of 251 participants, 171 said they
owned such a device and 80 said no. The average age of DECT phone users
was with 50.5 years significantly lower than for those participants without a
DECT phone (t-test, p < 0.001) so that no comparison group existed for
individual relationships.
The presented results show a significant relationship between mean exposure
levels of the study participants and reported health symptoms.
For the highest exposure group, the mean microwave exposure is given with
a field intensity of 1.2 V/m. An additional question concerning the use of
DECT phones at home revealed an additional background exposure level in
all participating households.
The graphs show clear trends for decreasing symptom scores in relation to
decreasing mean exposure levels caused by cell phone transmitter emissions.
The comparison with the national and international research to classify these
results provides additional arguments for nonrandom relationships.
Within the framework of the German Mobile Phone Programme (DMF), the
QUEBEB study also investigated if health symptoms in the population could
be associated with cell phone base stations and measured microwave
radiation levels.
This study did not show any significant relationships because the highest
measurement is given with 1 volt per meter, whereby 99% of the
measurements are below 0.34 V/m. The mean exposure level was at 0.07
V/m with a 95% percentile at 0.17 V/m (1).
While less than 1% of the participants of the DMF study were exposed above
0.34 V/m, 82 out of the 251 study participants in Selbitz belonged to a highexposure
group above 0.7 V/m, that is, 32.7%.
High exposure groups as found in Selbitz did basically not occur in the
samples of the German Mobile Phone Programme. To a certain degree, this
has to do with the method of random sampling and leads to a systematic
underestimation of the risk for population groups with higher exposures.
Thus the finding of the QUEBEB study that found no correlation applies only
to low-exposure groups and does in no way contradict the findings in Selbitz.
In Germany where complete cell phone coverage is provided, the Federal
Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) has received highly important
information about the health problems affecting residents living next to cell
phone base stations. In a meeting on 2 August 2006 in Neuherberg, strongly
worded official medical reports were quoted that document problem
situations in particularly highly exposed households (17-19).
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It has become known to industry that the health of their technicians is
damaged (20,21).
There are already efforts under way to explore possibilities of how the
electromagnetic pollution in wireless networks could be reduced. The
reasoning for a patent filed in 2003 explicitly quotes evidence of damage in
human DNA (22).
Since the 1960s long-term, nonthermal effects on the human central nervous
system have been causally linked to microwaves, ultrashort waves, and
shortwaves in several studies.
As part of a dissertation, Wenzel studied the health status of radio personnel
in East German military forces (NVA) and summarized his results in a report
that was confidential until 1989. In comparison to a nonexposed group, he
observed an increase in headaches, sleep problems, general fatigue, eye
pain, stabbing pain in the chest, declining mental power, irritability,
dizziness, tendency to sweat, and visual problems. As a result of his findings,
the inadequacy of the current exposure limits had already been pointed out
in 1967 (9).
The review of occupational surveys in the Soviet Union between 1960 and
1996, which had been carried out by Prof. Hecht on behalf of the Federal
Office for Telecommunications, revealed causal links for microwave radiation
as a stressor of the central nervous system (26).
In 1960 Iranyi et al. from Hungary reported for the first time in the Munich
Medical Weekly Journal about a substantially increasing number of health
problems in radio personnel of “modern” radio stations that had been
validated by measurements and confirmed by medical doctors, including
headaches, dizziness, tiredness, sleep problems, tremors, and other
symptoms. The symptoms occurred from field intensities above 3.8 V/m.
There was no indication of simulated complaints. Because the symptoms
occurred during their working hours and were associated with the number of
years of employment, the authors concluded that there is a causal link
between symptoms and exposure levels (10).
In 1962 Miro found increasing cases of pain, dizziness, nausea, personality
changes, weight loss, fever attacks with chilling and sweating, and general
fatigue in French radar personnel. The RF radiation exposure was at ca. 5
V/m (8).
In 1996 a study by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy around the shortwave
transmitter at Schwarzenburg in Switzerland documented highly significant
health problems in the civilian population regarding sleep problems,
headaches, joint pain, fatigue, and other symptoms. In a blinded follow-up
study, symptoms started to improve one day after the transmitter was
turned off (11-13).
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In 2002 Santini et al. had also demonstrated a clear dose-response
relationship for the following symptoms in the vicinity of French cell phone
base stations: sleep problems, tiredness, fatigue, irritability, depression, and
other symptoms. As a conclusion, it was recommended back then to install
this type of transmitter no closer to residences than 300 m (14).
Similar findings were revealed in the work by Navarro et al. with the followup
measurements by Oberfeld (Government of Land Salzburg, Health
Department), in which case the measured exposure levels were highly
significantly correlated with major health problems. Three groups showed the
following field intensity distribution: group 1 – 0.02-0.04 V/m, group 2 –
0.05-0.22 V/m, and group 3 – 0.25-1.29 V/m (15).
In 2007 the paper by Abdel-Rassoul et al. showed significant problems of the
central nervous system (headaches, memory problems, dizziness, tremors,
symptoms of depression, sleep problems) in an exposed population
compared to the control group. The measured field intensity of the group
classified as exposed was 3 V/m (16).
The survey presented here included specific control questions to verify the
credibility of the participants’ responses. From the number of described
symptoms, for example, it was possible to see that the questionnaires had
not been filled out randomly. Thus the control question for “toothaches,” a
disease mainly caused by caries, showed no difference between the exposed
and unexposed groups.
As was to be expected, the control symptom “bedwetting” occurred only in a
very small percentage and also showed no difference between exposed and
unexposed groups.
The relationship between the question “weight gain” and “weight loss”
corresponded with the known clinical reality. The obesity prevalence (body
mass index BMI > 30) in the population is on average at 20%, which
corresponds with a value of 1 (20% of maximum value 5) in our symptom
scores. Underweight is found only in ca. 1-6% of the German population,
which is reflected in the low symptom score for weight loss at 0.2 in our
study (28).
A trend toward voting behavior in terms of symptom aggravation could thus
be ruled out.
The occurrence of the symptom groups sleep problems, depression, cerebral
symptoms, infections, skin problems, cardiovascular problems, problems of
the visual and auditory system as well as the gastrointestinal tract proved to
be consistently and significantly higher in the exposed groups. As can be
seen from the literature review, it has been known since the 1960s that RF
electromagnetic fields and microwaves can trigger these symptoms (8-10).
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Equally significant were differences for the scores of joint problems, which
again replicated already published findings of the Schwarzenburg study,
Switzerland (11-13).
The results presented here were statistically validated by the t-test (7). The
often stereotypically quoted criticism of too small case numbers for a
validation of an association was mathematically refuted by the application of
this statistical test and its significant results.
Considerably more crucial is the limitation of the gathered data because of
the noticeable self-selection of the participants compared to the total number
of the survey sample, which is reflected in the low response rate to the
questionnaires. However, neither the response rates of the entire 400-m
radius around the transmitter nor the highest exposure area do significantly
differ from the response rate of control area 5, which again suggests a
homogenous response behavior and speaks against an overselection of
allegedly sick persons (Table 2).
The approached participants, including persons from the 400-m radius
around the cell phone transmitter at the Feldstraße as well as Selbitz
residents from further away, did not know that they would be classified into
groups based on their residential location and exposure level. Thus it was not
possible for the participants to classify themselves into groups 1 to 5.
In follow-up studies one should try to increase the response rate by phone
calls or personal interviews instead of relying on a single mailout as was done
in this study.
In Selbitz municipality, there are proponents as well as critics of wireless
technologies and also persons who are indifferent to it so that each group
had the same opportunity to respond. The number of study participants who
considered their health affected by cell phone radiation was 12% in Selbitz
and, therefore, falls below the participation rate of 23%. This corresponds
with a percentage of 9% as found in the DMF. Thus a selection bias was not
The participating individual groups did not differ based on age or gender,
respectively; the plausibility of the responses was validated within the study.
It is therefore assumed that the documented results reflect the actual
distribution of the health problems.
International definitions stipulate that adverse health effects caused by
microwave radiation can only be regarded as verified if the explanation for a
plausible effect mechanism is provided, studies are independently replicated
several times, and no contradictions exist in other studies (23).
With the paper presented here, these conditions are met so that the ongoing
demand for evidence has been met once again. When taking the low
exposure levels into account, the negative results of the German Mobile
Phone Programme are consistent.
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Until 2009 the official protocol for the investigation of health problems in
residents living next to transmitters amounted to nothing more than
measuring exposure levels in affected households instead of on-site
monitoring with transmitter shutdowns to investigate causal links.
From the compliance with the currently valid exposure limits, it was
concluded without any further investigation—using the logic of
reductionism—that below these exposure limits no health effects could occur
because, first, the exposure limits have already been met and, second, no
scientifically accepted studies are available. The latter statement is not up to
the current state of science.
According to the Federal Immission Control Act (§ 22 BlmSchG) as well as
the German constitution (art. 2, para. 2 GG), during the operation of
technical facilities health hazards to a third party must indisputably be ruled
With the Federal Immission Control Ordinance (26. BlmSchV), the federal
regulation maker establishes exposure limit regulations for electromagnetic
fields whose specifications are required by acts and the constitution. But as
the presented paper shows once more, a clearly increasing incidence of
disease is already taking place far below legally binding exposure guideline
Even if in legal terms, this is not yet proof for an individual-specific evidence
of damage, the presented investigations make it clear that the conclusions
drawn by the federal regulation maker from the results of the German Mobile
Phone Programme, according to which no health risk is to be expected below
the exposure limits of the 26. BlmSchV, are scientifically and legally
From a legal perspective, it should be noted here that the current exposure
limit regulations basically do not provide sufficient protection against health
risks. Insofar as official agencies still suggest that the exposure limits of the
26. BlmSchV would be precautionary limits, these limits are now disproven—
among others—through our investigation, as it showed a significantly
increased health risk in the vicinity of cell phone base stations.
As has already been demanded by the European Parliament, current
exposure guidelines need to be urgently reviewed. Because of the
documented relationship between exposure and health symptoms, there is
also an urgent need for further research to elucidate the detailed
relationships of health symptoms.
It is a physician’s responsibility—not bound by directives—to work towards
the preservation of the natural basis of life regarding human health (24).
As representatives of public health agencies, state offices such as the Public
Health Department, the State Office for the Environment, and the Bavarian
Ministry of the Environment as well as higher-ranking government levels
Electromagnetic Fields Original Scientific Paper
Original German umwelt-medizin-gesellschaft ⏐23⏐2/2010 18
such as the Federal Ministry of the Environment and the European Union are
invited to specify the cause of this possible slow poisoning.
After shutting down the respective transmitters for half a year, a portion of
the health symptoms reported by the study participants in Selbitz should
become normalized. The significant clinical relevance of the observed results
has been discussed.
Contact Horst Eger (correspondence)
Marktplatz 16
95119 Naila
Phone: 09282/1304
Medical Quality Assurance Working Group “Electromagnetic Fields in Medicine—
Diagnostics, Therapy, Environment” Code No. 65143 (KVB), recognized by the
Bavarian Medical Association
Dr. med Manfred Jahn
Brunnenstr. 1
95152 Selbitz
Beside the people of Selbitz, we especially thank Mayor Klaus Adelt, Sabine
Bodenschatz, Tanja Wohlfahrt, and Udo Wohlfahrt because without their
help this paper would never have been possible.
We owe Christina Panchyrz our gratitude for the record keeping.
Performed by Katharina Gustavs and authorized by the authors and publisher
Original publication:
EGER, H., JAHN, M., Spezifische Symptome und Mobilfunkstrahlung in Selbitz
(Bayern) – Evidenz für eine Dosiswirkungsbeziehung,
umwelt·medizin·gesellschaft, 23, 2 (2010), 130-139.
Upon request, the anonymized raw data can be provided by Selbitz
municipality to scientific institutions.
Submitted: 12 November 2009
Revised version accepted: 3 May 2010
Electromagnetic Fields Original Scientific Paper
Original German umwelt-medizin-gesellschaft ⏐23⏐2/2010 19
Editor’s Note
The above paper is identified as an original scientific paper and it was
subject to a special peer-review process in cooperation with the Scientific
Advisory Board.
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Electromagnetic Fields Original Scientific Paper
Original German umwelt-medizin-gesellschaft ⏐23⏐2/2010 20

Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010; 115: 91–96
Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR)
on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in
Wistar rats
1Department of Physiology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India, 2Department of
Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India, 3Department of Anatomy, Melaka Manipal
Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal, India, 4Department of Biochemistry, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal
University, Manipal, India, and 5Department of Biochemistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University,
Manipal, India
Introduction. The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) with the brain is a serious
concern of our society.
Objective. We evaluated the effect of RF-EMR from mobile phones on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal
morphology in rats.
Materials and methods. Healthy male albino Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 50 missed calls (within 1 hour) per
day for 4 weeks, keeping a GSM (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone) in the cage. After the
experimental period, passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology were studied.
Results. Passive avoidance behaviour was significantly affected in mobile phone RF-EMR-exposed rats demonstrated as shorter
entrance latency to the dark compartment when compared to the control rats. Marked morphological changes were also
observed in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats.
Conclusion. Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal
morphology in rats.
Key words: Hippocampus, memory, mobile phone, passive avoidance, RF-EMR (radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation)
The use of mobile phones is increasing day by day,
and it is estimated that approximately 500 million
people worldwide are using mobile phones currently.
A large proportion of users is made up of children and
teenagers. Due to the wide and growing use of mobile
communication, there is increasing concern about
the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with
the human organs and, in particular, with the brain.
Experimental studies have shown that the radiofrequency
electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR)
emitted from the mobile phones can affect the brain
in various ways. These effects have been described
in vitro and in vivo in a number of studies: in particular,
effects on cerebral blood flow (1–4), blood-brain barrier
permeability (4), oxidant and antioxidant balance
(5), neurotransmitter balance (6), nerve cell damage
(7), and genomic responses (8) have been reported.
There is some concern that short-term memory loss
Correspondence: Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan, Department of Physiology, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576104, India.
(Received 3 August 2009; accepted 10 December 2009)
ISSN 0300-9734 print/ISSN 2000-1967 online 2010 Informa UK Ltd. (Informa Healthcare, Taylor & Francis AS)
DOI: 10.3109/03009730903552661
or other cognitive effects may be associated with
the use of mobile telephones. In our previous study
we had reported that mobile phone exposure in
Wistar rats resulted in impaired spatial memory
performance in the Morris Water Maze (MWM)
test, demonstrated as more time taken to reach the
target quadrant and less time spent in the target quadrant
(9). In the present study, we tried to evaluate the
effect of long-term exposure to RF-EMR emitted from
a mobile phone (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) on passive avoidance
behaviour and hippocampal morphology in male
Wistar rats.
Materials and methods
Inbred healthy male albino Wistar rats (8–10 weeks
old) were used in this experiment. They were
obtained from Manipal University (MU) central animal
facility. The rats were housed in plastic cages of
size 36 cm 23 cm 21 cm (three rats in each cage)
inside a temperature- and humidity-controlled environment
with free access to food and water ad libitum,
with a 12 h light and 12 h dark cycle. All the experiments
were carried out with prior approval from the
institutional animal ethics committee. Care was taken
to handle the rats in a humane manner, and all
precautions were taken to use the minimum number
of animals required to generate significant data.
Experimental design
Animals were divided into two groups: group I
(n = 12), normal control; and group II (n = 12)
were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 50 missed calls
(within 1 hour) per day for 4 weeks, keeping a GSM
(0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode
(no ring tone) in the cage (9). Each missed call was of
the duration of 45 seconds. Animals were free to move
in the cage. The phone was kept in a small woodbottomed
cage sized 12 cm 7 cm 7 cm. The
bamboo wire mesh on top of the wood bottom cage
prevented the animals from contact with the phone.
Twenty-four hours after the last exposure, six randomly
picked animals from both groups were tested
for passive avoidance behaviour using passive avoidance
apparatus. This test was conducted between
4.00 p.m. and 6.00 p.m. The remaining animals
from both groups were sacrificed to study the histological
changes in the hippocampus. Statistical analysis
was done by using Student’s t test. P-value < 0.05
was considered as significant.
Passive avoidance apparatus
The apparatus has two compartments, a rectangular
larger compartment with a 50 cm 50 cm grid floor
and wooden walls of 35 cm height. It has a roof, which
can be opened or closed. One of the walls has a
6 cm 6 cm opening connecting the larger compartment
to a dark smaller compartment. The smaller
compartment has a 15 cm 15 cm electrifiable grid
connected to a constant current stimulator, wooden
walls of 15 cm height, and a ceiling that can be
opened or closed. The connection between the two
compartments can be closed with a sliding door
made of Plexiglas. The larger compartment was
illuminated with a 100-W bulb placed 150 cm above
the centre.
Passive avoidance test
Passive avoidance test was conducted by the method
of Bures et al. (10), with modifications. The experiment
had three parts: 1) an exploration test, 2) an
aversive stimulation and learning test, and 3) a
retention test. The exploration test was conducted
in three trials. During this, each rat was kept in the
centre of the larger compartment facing away from
the entrance to the dark compartment. The door
between the two compartments was kept open. The
rat was allowed to explore the apparatus (both larger
and smaller compartments) for 3 minutes. In each
trial, the total time taken by the animal to enter the
dark compartment was noted using a stop-watch. At
the end of the trial, the rat was replaced in the home
cage, where it remained during an inter-trial interval
of 5 minutes. After the last exploration trial, the rat
was again kept in the larger compartment as in the
trial sessions. When the animal entered the smaller
compartment, the sliding door between the two
compartments of the apparatus was closed and three
strong foot shocks (50 Hz, 1.5 mA, and 1 s duration)
were given at 5-second intervals. The ceiling was
then opened and the rat was then returned to its
home cage. The retention test was carried out after
24 and 48 hours. The rat was kept in the centre of the
larger compartment facing away from the entrance
to the smaller compartment for a maximum period
of 3 minutes. The sliding door was kept open during
this period. The latency time required for the
animal to enter the dark compartment was recorded.
The latency time was recorded as 3 minutes for
those animals that did not enter the dark compartment
within 3 minutes. Absence of entry into the
dark compartment indicated positive memory
92 S. N. Narayanan et al.
Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining
All histological procedures were uniform for control
and test group animals. The rats were sacrificed by
cervical dislocation under ether anaesthesia, and the
brain was exposed by cutting the skull along the midline.
The whole brain was carefully dissected out and
fixed in 10% buffered formalin (with pH 7.4) for 24 h.
It was then dehydrated in ethanol, defatted in xylene,
and embedded in paraffin. Care was taken to ensure
that all brains were oriented in the same direction
during embedding to minimize differences in the
angles at which the brains were sectioned. A single
investigator processed all brains to maintain consistency
in histological analysis. Sections were cut on a
rotary microtome (Leica RM2155, Germany) at
5-micron thickness and stained with hematoxylin
and eosin (H&E) according to standard procedure.
The hippocampal CA3 region was studied under a
light microscope. To avoid observer’s bias, an independent
person coded the slides before subjecting
them to morphological evaluations.
Passive avoidance test
In the exploration trials, the entrance latency to the
dark compartment was decreased in both the groups
from first to third trial, but there was a significant
difference in the entrance latency time of the groups in
the second and third trials. The RF-EMR-exposed
animals took more time to enter the dark compartment
during the second and third exploration trials
(Figure 1).
During the memory retention test, the entrance
latency to the dark compartment was significantly
less for mobile phone-exposed rats when compared
with the control group. The latency was approximately
four times less in the mobile phone-exposed
animals tested 24 hrs after the shock trial (Figure 2A),
and the latency was approximately three times less in
the mobile phone-exposed rats tested 48 hours after
the shock trial (Figure 2B).
Hippocampal morphology
In comparison to the control animals, marked morphological
changes were detected in the CA3 region of
the hippocampus of the RF-EMR-exposed rats. The
hippocampus of RF-EMR-exposed rats showed
shrunken, darkly stained neurons (Figure 3B). No
such changes were observed in the control rats
(Figure 3A).
Passive avoidance tests or conditioned avoidance tests
have been used in several studies to assess memory or
retention and also retrieval after or during other
treatments (11–13). Generally rats avoid intense illumination
and prefer dim illumination. When placed
in a brightly illuminated space connected with a dark
enclosure, they rapidly enter the dark compartment
and remain there. After an aversive consequence (foot
shock) in the dark compartment, the animals modify
their behaviour by inhibiting the innate activities or
learned habits (staying in the dark) and remain in the
bright compartment (10). So, in this task the animals
learn to avoid a noxious event by suppressing a
particular behaviour (14).
In the current study, the mobile phone exposure
significantly affected the passive avoidance behaviour
in rats. In other words, the memory retention and the
retrieval were significantly affected in mobile phone
RF-EMR-exposed rats. In comparison to the control
group, mobile phone-exposed animals showed
shorter latency to enter into the dark compartment
in the memory retention test (24 h and 48 h after the
aversive stimulus). This showed that the animals, after
being exposed to aversive stimulation (foot shock) in
the passive avoidance task, did not remember this task
to some extent on the following day, and this clearly
indicates the impairment of the memory. In mobile
phone-exposed animals the associative memory which
had built up through repetition over many trials and
expressed primarily in the performance of tasks
Trial 1 Trial 2
Control Exposed
Entrance latency to the dark
compartment (sec)
Trial 3
Figure 1. Time taken by the animals to enter the dark compartment
of the passive avoidance apparatus during the exploration trials
of passive avoidance test. The entrance latency to the dark compartment
was decreased in both the groups from first to third trial,
but there was a significant difference in the entrance latency time of
the groups in the second and third trials. The radio-frequency
electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR)-exposed animals took
more time to enter the dark compartment during the exploration
trials. *P < 0.05.
Effect of RF-EMR on Wistar rats 93
was affected. This change in the behaviour of animals
(the shorter latency to enter the dark compartment) in
the passive avoidance task could be due to the altered
functioning of both hippocampal and amygdaloidal
neurons due to the damage caused by the RF-EMR
emitted from the mobile phone. A number of clinical
and experimental studies have shown the role of
hippocampal formation and related structures in
the medial temporal lobe in learning and memory
(15,16). In rats, bilateral lesion of the specific areas of
the hippocampus (CA1 and CA3) produced greater
impairments in the performance of passive avoidance
task (17). Bilateral hippocampal lesions in chicks
caused decreased retention of the avoidance response
(18). These studies suggest the involvement of the
hippocampal system in associative learning processes
and in memory.
In our current study, the hematoxylin and eosin
staining of the hippocampal region clearly showed
interspersed, deeply stained, shrunken cells, which
clearly indicates the degenerative changes in these
areas. The exact mechanism responsible for this
degeneration has to be investigated; perhaps the
mechanism is through reactive oxygen species. Earlier
A. B.
Figure 3. Representative photomicrograph of sections of hippocampal CA3 region of the brain from both control and radio-frequency
electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR)-exposed rat stained with hematoxylin and eosin. A: Control animal; row of normal nerve cells in a section
of the pyramidal cell band of the hippocampus CA3 region is seen. B: Mobile phone RF-EMR-exposed rat; among the normal nerve cells, dark
(deeply stained) and shrunken nerve cells are seen.
A. 40 B.
Control Exposed
Entrance latency to the dark
compartment (sec)
Entrance latency to the dark
compartment (sec)
30 *
Figure 2. Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on latency to enter the dark compartment 24 hours (A) and 48 hours
(B) after the shock trial. Rats exposed to the mobile phone took significantly less time to enter the dark compartment in the memory retention
test. Results are expressed as mean ± SEM. *P < 0.05.
94 S. N. Narayanan et al.
reports have stated that mobile phones caused oxidative
damage biochemically by increasing the levels of
Malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups, Xanthine
oxidase (XO) activity, and decreasing CAT activity;
and that treatment with melatonin significantly prevented
oxidative damage in the brain (19). The studies
on guinea-pigs have shown increases in MDA,
vitamins A, D3 (3), and E levels, increased CAT
enzyme activity, and decreased Glutathione (GSH)
level in the blood of Electromagnetic field (EMF)-
exposed guinea-pigs (20). The rats, when exposed to
900 MHz electromagnetic radiation from a mobile
phone for 7 days (1 h/day) showed 1) increase in
malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in brain tissue,
2) decrease in brain superoxide dismutase and
glutathione peroxidase activities, and 3) increase in
brain xanthine oxidase and adenosine deaminase
activities. Ginkgo biloba significantly prevented these
changes in the brain (21). Exposure of adult Sprague-
Dawley rats to regular cell phones resulted in mRNA
up-regulation of several injury-associated proteins,
such as calcium ATPase, neural cell adhesion molecule,
neural growth factor, and vascular endothelial
growth factor (22). The possible role of programmed
cell death in the brain could also not to be excluded.
Short-term exposure to cell phone radio-frequency
emissions (1900 MHz) can up-regulate elements of
apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain,
and neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect
than are astrocytes (23). The primary neuronal cultures
of rats exposed to a continuous wave (CW) 900 MHz
Radiofrequency fields (RF) for 24 h induced apoptosis
through a caspase-independent pathway that involves
Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) (24).
Both neurons and glia interact dynamically to
enable information processing and behaviour
(25,26). The poor performance of rats in the behavioural
tests could also be due to the damaging effect
of microwaves on glial cells, which in turn alters the
neuronal activity in the rat hippocampus and amygdala.
Acute exposure to GSM 900 MHz electromagnetic
fields (a single GSM exposure = 15 min)
induced glial reactivity and biochemical modifications
in the rat brain (27). Chronic exposure to GSM
900 MHz microwaves induced persistent astroglia
activation in the rat brain, which is the sign of a
potential gliosis (28). Reports also suggest that both
amygdala and hippocampus act synergistically to form
long-term memories of significantly emotional events,
and these brain structures are activated following an
emotional event and cross-talk with each other in the
process of consolidation (29). In order to prove the
involvement of various pathways (Reactive Oxygen
Species (ROS), apoptosis, or glial reactivation, or a
combination of all three) in the alteration of rat
behaviour and hippocampal morphology after
mobile phone RF-EMR exposure, further studies
are warranted.
The health effects of commonly encountered radiofrequency
electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) from
mobile phone exposures do exist. The evidence from
this study points to the quite substantial hazard of
RF-EMR from the mobile phone on passive avoidance
behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats.
Declaration of interest: The authors report no
conflicts of interest. The authors alone are responsible
for the content and writing of this paper.
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Thursday, 23 September 2010


Raleigh, N.C. - Building air ducts can help boost cellphone and Wi-Fi signals in stores, helping retailers expand their mobile marketing efforts..

Research at North Carolina State University shows that the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning ducts (HVAC) that snake through commercial real estate act as natural signal boosters that can help eliminate dead spots in stores.

This would be a boon to retailers like Best Buy and Target, which are rolling out mobile-marketing programs that send coupons, sales alerts and product information to shopper's cell phones.

According to a report in Storefront Backtalk, an industry newsletter, the researchers found that HVAC ductwork is an excellent conduit for cell tower transmissions because the ducts typically consist of hollow metal pipes. The group was originally searching for ways to boost RFID signals in stores.

Retailers would still require a microcell repeater to grab and strengthen the cell signals, although the ducts themselves would act as distributed antennae, said Dr. Dan Stancil, chairman of the university's electrical and computer engineering department.

"The ducts will increase the range in a very different way, meaning that you can cover Wi-Fi with far fewer access points," he said.

Monday, 23 August 2010

Dr. Samuel Milham was the first scientist to alert the world that exposure to electromagnetic fields can cause disease. His new book, Dirty Electricity: Electrification and the Diseases of Civilization, documents Dr. Milham’s early years and education, and describes his discovery of the link between electromagnetic field exposure and most of the twentieth century diseases of civilization, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and suicide.

In Dirty Electricity, Dr. Milham discusses the recent proliferation of radio frequency radiation from cell phones and towers, terrestrial antennas, Wi-Fi and Wi-max systems, broadband internet over power lines, and personal electronic equipment and warns of the epidemic of disease and mortality that we may soon face because of these technologies. These technologies, he explains, are creating the 2nd wave of illnesses from electromagnetic fields, the first being from electrification beginning in the early part of the 20th century and only recently discovered thanks to Dr. Milham’s work.

Dr. Milham says the ‘War on Cancer’ has been a failure because “people have missed the major carcinogen”. He has tried to get the attention of several government agencies, as well as the marines, as to the role that electromagnetic fields–and in particular ‘dirty electricity’ –have played in the illnesses of our times, to no avail. Thus, he has written “Dirty Electricity: Electrification and the Diseases of Civilization” to bring the key learnings of his career to the public. A winner of the Ramazzini prize for his pioneering work in the occupational risks for cancer from electromagnetic fields, Dr. Milham has long been on the forefront of understanding biological effects from electromagnetic fields. After recently doing pioneering work linking cancer clusters in schools to Dirty Electricity, he is now especially concerned about a cluster of Boeing workers with Lou Gehrig’s disease and would like to study the electromagnetic environment there but so far has not been granted access. He also says that Gulf War Syndrome may have an important electromagnetic component, and that military health issues blamed on things like water quality in certain instances may in fact be electromagnetic in nature, such as from extensive portable air conditioning for soldiers in the Middle East.’s interview with Dr. Milham begins with a discussion of the very low incidence of many diseases among one sect of the Amish that uses no electricity whatsoever, and his finding that doctors there report no ADHD in children. Another very interesting learning from this interview is that EMF risk from cell towers is not only from the radiation (RF) being emitted (i.e. the microwave radiation), but from the dirty electricity the operation of the tower puts onto the electrical system in the neighborhood, suggesting anyone who lives near a tower might be well advised to check the level of Dirty Electricity with a Graham Stetzer meter, developed by Dr. Martin Graham, Professor Emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, and Dave Stetzer of Stetzer Electric. Graham Stetzer meters to measure Dirty Electricity, and filters to address the problem (capacitors), can be found at

Dr. Milham says, “Government has really failed. It has let the people down.” As one additional example of this Milham says, “Why on earth would governments allow cell towers to be put on school grounds?”

Are our minds being altered by the ever increasing see of radio waves we live in?

Every 50 years or so, American magazine the Atlantic lobs an intellectual grenade into our culture. In the summer of 1945, for example, it published an essay by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) engineer Vannevar Bush entitled "As We May Think". It turned out to be the blueprint for what eventually emerged as the world wide web. Two summers ago, the Atlantic published an essay by Nicholas Carr, one of the blogosphere's most prominent (and thoughtful) contrarians

"Over the past few years," Carr wrote, "I've had an uncomfortable sense that someone, or something, has been tinkering with my brain, remapping the neural circuitry, reprogramming the memory. My mind isn't going – so far as I can tell – but it's changing. I'm not thinking the way I used to think. I can feel it most strongly when I'm reading. Immersing myself in a book or a lengthy article used to be easy. My mind would get caught up in the narrative or the turns of the argument and I'd spend hours strolling through long stretches of prose. That's rarely the case anymore. Now my concentration often starts to drift after two or three pages. I get fidgety, lose the thread, begin looking for something else to do. I feel as if I'm always dragging my wayward brain back to the text. The deep reading that used to come naturally has become a struggle."

It's not rocket science our brains are living in a totally alien see of microwaves of course we can't think the way God designed us to!!

Friday, 20 August 2010

In its latest publication ARCEP-FRANCE (Regulatory Authority Electronic Communications and Postal) mentions a very significant fact: after falling for several years, the volume of minutes used on landline telephones has recently increased spectacularly and now exceeds the minutes used by mobile phones. The respective figures show traffic of 25.5 billion minutes for mobile phones, which is the same figure as the first quarter of 2009, thus a stagnation "after years of non-stop expansion". In contrast, during the same period “the total volume of traffic for landline phones reached 30.7 billion minutes in the first quarter of 2010, a level which it had not reached since almost 10 years ago,” declared ARCEP.
Some people explain this by the economic crisis (are parents keeping a closer eye on the phone bills?), others see the dawning realisation that using a mobile phone carries a health risk. Whatever the reason, against all expectation the landline phone is gaining ground in a surprising way against the mobile.
Paradoxically average yearly revenues remain the same, in spite of the ingenuity and multiplicity of new offers from the phone companies. An ex-fan of the mobile phone…
The golden age of an investment return in double figures from mobile telephony is now in the past, and the poor return on the mobile videophone (3G, etc,) is a bitter pill for the phone companies. Whether due to the economic climate or not, the PMT (Personal Mobile Television), which the operators were so keen on and was supported by the authorities, backed up by offers from the manufacturers, has turned out to be a flop. The truth is that there is a widespread falling off of demand, especially in the northern countries, for mobile phone time. Is this a first sign of salvation for the southern European countries? [Report ABI research]
For the time being the phone companies’ revenues are still being boosted in the developing countries, particularly in Africa which is a truly limitless Eldorado, with its favourable geopolitical conditions and a public that has no awareness of any health risks. Considering the poverty in some African countries it’s even indecent, yet it is entirely possible that, in the face of the phone companies’ aggressive marketing and business methods, the demand for mobile phones will literally explode.
But beware and prepare for tomorrow, for the tide may well turn.
- Authority:

Tuesday, 10 August 2010


Dear Mr. Martin:
I write in reference to the Federal Communication Commission's vote on the authorization of
new unlicensed "White Spaces" devices for wireless communications in the TV Broadcast
Bands, scheduled for its November 4th meeting. FCC adoption of rules to authorize use of White
Spaces spectrum for wireless devices operating in the home will lead to the repeated, chronic,
long-term exposure of individuals, at all age levels, and to more frequencies and quantities of
radiofrequency (RF) radiation at very close range than is currently the case. Whether these
exposures pose human health risks is under investigation by members of the scientific and public
health research communities. I am writing to remind FCC to consider the potential for serious
human health effects that could result from the proliferation of these devices in the home, before
allowing the proliferation of such devices.
By design, the White Spaces devices rule will increase the bandwidth available for wireless
devices operating at close range, for general use in the home and elsewhere. As a result, it is
expected that the number of transmitters in the broadcast frequency range will increase
exponentially with the roll out of White Spaces devices and infrastructure. The Commission has
classified unlicensed broadband White Spaces devices to be used in the TV bands into two
general functional categories. The first category consists of lower power "personal/ portable"
unlicensed devices, such as Wi-Fi cards in laptop computers or wireless in-home local area
networks (LANs). The second category consists of higher power "fixed/access" unlicensed
devices that are generally operated from a fixed location and may be used to provide a
commercial service such as wireless broadband Internet access. Whereas high-powered analog
broadcast transmitter sites have traditionally been found at locations somewhat removed from
business centers and residential neighborhoods, the new White Spaces devices that will also
transmit in the digital broadcast frequencies are designed to operate at close range to members of
Mr. Kevin J. Martin
November 3,2008
the public who choose to use them as well as to their colleagues and neighbors who may choose
not to use them.
This proliferation of RF exposure follows the September 25,2008 hearing before the
Domestic Policy Subcommittee of the Oversight and Government Reform Committee on
"Tumors and Cell Phone Use-'What the Science Says," at which witnesses raised serious
concems about the potential public health implications of RF exposures through cell phones.
Some specific concerns were raised about FCC RF radiation exposure limits. Namely, they may
not be adequate to protect humans from adverse biological effects; may not provide protection
from long-term exposure; are only based on tissue heating reactions on a non-representative
sample of the total population (a six-feet tall male); do not address the current state of scientif,rc
research establishing non-thermal biological effects; and do not err on the side of precaution.
While RF exposures from cell phones are different than the RF exposures that will be
generated through the White Spaces auction, there is much that is unknown about the health
effects of these exposures that corresponds with concerns raised in the hearing. In its 2005 Fact
Sheet entitled, "Studies on Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by Cellular Phones," the National
Toxicology Program (NTP) at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences states:
Over 100 million Americans curuently use wireless communication devices with over 50
thousand new users daily. This translates into a potentially significant public health
problem should the use ofthese devices even slightly increase the risk ofadverse health
effects. Cellular phones and other wireless communication devices are required to meet
the radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposure guidelines of the Federal Communications
Commission (FCC, August 1996). The existing exposure guidelines are based on
protectionfrom acute injuryfrom thermal fficts of RFR exposure. Cunent datq are
insfficient to draw definitive conclusions concerning the adequacy of these guidelines to
be protective against any non-thermal fficts of chronic exposures.
In January 2008 the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) issued a report entitled:
Identification of Research Needs Relating to Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of
Wireless Communication Devices. The following excerpts from the NAS Report support the
NTP's conclusion that the research record upon which FCC's RF Safety Guidelines are based
does not adequately safeguard the public from non-thermal chronic exposures:
Research Needs
l. There is a need to characterize exposure ofjuveniles, children, pregnant women,
andfetuses, bothfor personal wireless devices (e.g., cell phones, wireless
personal computers, tPcsl) and for RF fields from base station antennqs
including gradients and variability of exposures, the environment in which
devices are used, and exposures from other sources, multilateral exposures, and
multiple frequencies.
Mr. Kevin J. Martin
November 3, 2008
Page 3
2. Wireless networlcs are being built very rapidly, and many more base station
antennas are being installed. A crucial research need is to characterize radiated
electromagnetic fields for typical multiple-element bqse station antennas andfor
the highest radiated power conditions with measurements conducted during peak
hours of the day at locations close to the antennas as well as at ground level . . .
3. The use of evolving types of antennas for hand-held cell phones and text
messaging devices need to be characterizedfor the Specffic Absorption Rates
(SARÐ that they deliver to dffirent parts of the body so that this data is available
for use infuture epidemiologic studies.
4. RF exposure of the operational personnel close to multi-element newer base
station antennas is unlcnown and could be high, These exposures need to be
characterized. Also needed are dosimetric absorbed power calculations using
realistic anatomic models for both men and women of dffirent heights.
Most of the reported studies to date have involved one base station antenna and
have used mostly homogeneous models, often of simplified circular or rectangular
cross sections of the exposed human . . . In other words, the studies to date do not
pertain to the commonly used multiple-element base station radiators. Also,
unlike highly localized cell phone RF energt deposition, the base station
exposures involve much, if not all, of the body and would have slightly dffirent
radiator origins (for multiple-element base stqtions) and may be multi-frequency
as well, particularly if several dffirent-frequency base stcttion antennas are colocated.
Furthermore, because of the whole-body resonance phenomenon, the
SIR is likely to be higher for shorter individuals due to the closeness of the
fr e quency/fr e qu enc i e s of exp o s ur e t o the w hol e -b o dy r e s onanc e fr e que ncy.
FCC has committed detailed and thorough analysis of what this White Spaces technology
might do to cause interference with other commercial uses. I call upon the Commission to match
its concern for commercial interests with concern for human health of the future consumers of
this technology. To that end, I hereby request that the Commission stay its November 4,2008
vote pertaining to "White Spaces" devices. In the interim, I urge you to immediately take
appropriate agency action to consider what RF human exposure guidelines FCC should set to
protect the health and safety of the American public before authorizing this technology to be
licensed or deployed. I also request that the Commission provide my Subcommittee with a
detailed description of the measures FCC has taken to date to ensure public health will not be
jeopardized by the auctioning of the White Spaces spectrum, given the scientific concerns and
unknowns about RF exposure and the proliferation of new RF exposures that will result.
Mr. Kevin J. Martin
November 3, 2008
Page 4
The Oversight and Government Reform Committee is the principal oversight committee in
the House of Representatives and has broad oversight jurisdiction as set forth in House Rule X.
An attachment to this letter provides information on how to respond to the Subcommittee's
request. W'e request that you provide these documents as soon as possible, but in no case later
than 5:00 p.m. on Monday, November 17,2008.
If you have any questions regarding this request, please contact Jaron Bourke, Staff Director,
at (202) 225-6427.
ù,u^;- ù,\ü^-;cL Dennis J. Kucinich
Domestic Policy Subcommittee

DECT telephones and mobile phones cause cancer

The Highest Regional Court in Brescia (North Italy) has now issued a final valid judgement confirming a causal connection.

The brain tumor of an employee of the INAIL (IstitutoNazionale by l' Assicurazione contro gli Infortuni sul Lavoro) the National Public Insurance Institute, has been caused by hours of use of a cordless(DECT) and/or mobile phone

The judgement is a breakthrough because this time the Judge excluded industry financed appraisals and relied on industry independent data.

This judgement makes it now possible for employees in Italy to insist on the supply of a corded phone and to advise their employer that they are legally liable for future damages should they insist on the use of a cordless phone.

The Consumer Center in South Tirol advises everyone to insist on a written declaration regarding the use of telecommunication equipment which expressly states that the employer takes all responsibility for any future medium or long term consequences

The plaintiff has now been awarded an 80% disability pension due to his ` handy damage' .and the employer INAIL is to pay all court costs.

Thursday, 24 June 2010

In January 2009 the municipality of the Bavarian town of Selbitz, carried out a health survey by which the data of 251 citizens was recorded and then analyzed regarding radiation intensity by microwaves. In a second step, the radiation data was used to stratify the participants in pollution intensity groups, utilizing place of residence and available readings of the regional mobile telephone radiation. The mean radiation measurements of the groups exposed at most in Selbitz (1.2 V/m) was substantially higher than the mean radiation of the study population studied in the QUEBEB study (1) of the German mobile telephone research program (Deutsches Mobilfunkforschungsprogramm DMF, established mean value DMF 0.07 V/m).

A significant correlation was found dependent on dose-effects for insomnia, depressions, cerebral symptoms, joint illnesses, infections, skin changes, heart and circulation disorders, and disorders of the optical and acoustic sensory systems and the gastro-intestinal tract with objectively determined locations of exposure, which can be related by the influence of microwaves on the human nervous system. This work, which has been carried out without external resources, provides a protocol for surveys of medical practitioners and municipality administrations to estimate Wissenschaftlicher Originalbeitrag 2 possible health effects of mobile telephone basic stations situated near population residents.

Specific symptoms and radiation from mobile basis stations in Selbitz, Bavaria, Germany: evidence for a dose-effect relationship

Keywords: symptoms, HF-radiation, dose-effect evidence

Saturday, 27 March 2010

My electrosenstivity showed up in late 2004 after a boat trip where I'd spent the day on the deck close to the mobile phone antennas, the radar and GSM probably, and the night also not far from them. It was the straw that broke the camel's back, a journey I made by boat in order not to add to greenhouse gases by taking the plane. I'd already been given a lovely present of a wireless phone on the bedside table, an electric transformer under the bed, mobile phone antennas very close and the terminal of some electrical wiring, to mention only the most powerful sources of electromagnetic radiation.
At the time I could no longer even walk beside a river (the friction of the water molecules releases atoms and creates an electrical field), my legs felt like cotton wool and I felt as if I was going to fall over.
When I was exposed to electromagnetic fields, all sorts of symptoms could appear: inflammation of the thyroid and severe pains (I suffer from the auto-immune Hashimoto's disease); feeling dizzy, falling sensations, poor coordination between brain and legs; sensations of electrocution of the brain followed by suffocation; problems with my metabolism; heart problems, digestive problems; problems with my sight; joint pains; stabbing pains in my muscles; cramps; sleeping problems; exhaustion; being unable to stand stress, heat, noise, light; difficulty in remembering, concentrating and following through my thoughts and speaking; skin conditions; severe pain in the jaws and teeth; depression - to mention only the mentionable ones.
And as if that wasn't enough, whether exposed to EMFs or not, I entered a charmed world: thickening features, falling hair, silhouette like a pink hippopotamus .....
In 2005 I put my health in the hands of the medical profession. When I found out they could do nothing I decided in 2006 to take charge of it myself. My first research foray led me to a forum "L'appart" that specialized in a gluten free and dairy-free diet. This diet did me a lot of good. Later that year an article in the magazine BioContact, distributed free in health shops, put me on the trail of poisoning from dental mercury so criticized by the late and regretted Dr Mellet. In fact I had many amalgam fillings, some of them overlaid with gold crowns. Gold and mercury can easily exchange their electrons, and the galvanization that this caused in my mouth greatly aggravated my numerous symptoms. I only understood this much later when the last crown was removed. . . In December 2006 I realised for sure that I was also electrosensitive when I went to visit one of my children who lived in a high-rise apartment block, on the 16th floor. It was obvious that the 6 relay antennas sited on its roof were very effective in filling the coffers of the Office Public de l'Habitat (formerly the Public Office of Social Housing), to the detriment of the health of its tenants. . In the face of all this I decided to create a healthier environment for myself.
Like many people who are EHS (Electro-Hyper-Sensitive), I had to confine myself in my home, which I'd fitted out with protection from hyperlan radiation (high-speed Internet at 5.4 GHz) and from LF radiation: Faraday cage and shielding of the mains electricity with earthing, among other things. If I chose to leave it, I had to wear garments that protected me against EMFs. In spite of these precautions, every trip resulted in a great deal of pain that was sometimes hardly bearable. If I tried to have some sort of social life I had to turn up with an HF EMF meter so that those present could see with their own eyes that their mobile phones were emitting powerful radiation, and I could hope that they would turn them off. It is worth remembering that Dr Maschi, who was rudely attacked by his colleagues, was already in 1965 warning about the health hazards from artificial electromagnetic wavelengths especially in low frequencies.
During the same period I had my dental fillings and crowns removed and followed a two-year chelation treatment to eliminate the heavy metals.
On the "L'appart" forum I met other people affected by heavy metals and EMFs and we set up another forum specifically for the topic of detoxification from these metals, the forum Melodie (Information and support for heavy metal detoxification)
Through our intense collective efforts we discovered some clues to other therapeutic approaches. One thing was obvious, that our immune systems were very weak, for instance several of us had Lyme's disease.
The most important discovery that our investigations and experiments as "forumers" revealed was probably the work of the American researcher Dr Hulda Clark. She describes how through using an audio oscillator she discovered that the root causes of all illness are environmental pollution and parasites (viruses, bacteria, moulds, amoebas, worms, etc). To restore health she developed a protocol that consists first of all in eliminating all parasites (certain ones block secretions from the organs) and cleaning out the cleansing organs: kidneys, intestines and liver. In fact the fourth liver cleanse removed a quarter litre of gallstones from my liver and cured my electrosenstivity. These cleanses are completely painless and can get rid of gallstones larger than a walnut.
However I still had problems with hypoglycemia and with painful joints, and a severe lack of magnesium. Continuing my research, I discovered that I had chronic candidiasis, a condition described in detail by Dr P-G Besson in his book "Je me sens mal, mais je ne sais pas pourquoi" (I Feel Bad but I Don't Know Why). Eliminating sugar from my diet completed my return to feeling well.
Chinese medicine has established a connection between the Hashimoto thyroid condition and chronic candidiasis. This system attributes auto-immune diseases to chronic candidiasis, since Candida albicans perforates the intestinal walls in order to feed itself from the lymph and the blood. I cherish the hope that eventually, once the Candida albicans has regained its place as common yeast, I will be able to say goodbye to my Hashimoto thyroid condition, which is supposedly incurable. In my case my thyroid, thanks to my gluten- and dairy-free diet (see the work of Dr Seignalet, "L'alimentation ou la troisième médecine" (Nutrition or the Third Type of Medicine) has not changed much and my antibodies are steadily decreasing. After several years of this condition this gland often just about disappears.
After thinking about this painful history and at its almost miraculous outcome, this is my understanding of the facts. This is just a hypothesis, mostly inspired by the work of Dr Hulda Clark. . Candida albicans is electrosensitive, so artificial electromagnetic fields constitute a stress for it. When I seat myself in front of my computer screen I soon start feeling itches in my back, one of the symptoms of chronic candidiasis. . It is a mould and therefore produces substances that are poisonous for the human body, feeding almost exclusively on sugar. Before the fourth cleanse my liver could no longer eliminate these substances. Dr Clark's theory was that the gallstones compress the cavities in the liver that detoxify the organism. Once these cavities that eliminate the Candida toxins had been unclogged by the fourth cleanse, my liver was once again capable of doing its cleaning job.
In a similar way, Dr Clark points out that the "universal allergy", that is to say chemosensitivity, can be cured by cleansing the liver of its numerous gallstones. It is a fact that 75% of people who are chemosensitive are also electrosensitive.
To treat chronic candidiasis it is essential to rebalance the ph of the body (since fungus grows in an acid environment) and to starve the Candida albicans to death by following a diet without any added sugar. This can take up to a year, and afterwards a strict diet must be adhered to. The growth of Candida is stimulated by, among other things, antibiotics, cortisone, chemotherapy, vaccines and fast foods, and by the pollution of the body by heavy metals and electromagnetic fields. In fact the graphs that indicate mercury poisoning, EMF pollution, Lyme's disease and chronic candidiasis are all more or less the same.
Unfortunately doctors do not receive nay training in environmental diseases. As soon as they come up against one of them they readily label it "psychosomatic" - it makes things so much easier! Tomorrow they'll tell us it's "genetic" but that won't make the diseases any better.
So when will they stop just trying to suppress symptoms, and take an interest in finding the cause of our diseases: pollution and parasites, poor eating habits, ineffective cleansing organs or whatever? .
Without the Internet and the Melodie forum [Fr], it would have been impossible for me to treat myself successfully.

Friday, 5 March 2010

ME now known as CFS, originally Yuppy Flu was its first name so called due to sufferers being early mobile phone users CFS symptoms and ES are closely linked. Why can't the Medics connect on this are we all turning into robots!

4 March 2010

Editor's Choice
Let’s proceed with caution
Fiona Godlee, editor, BMJ
The lively response to last month’s editorial on chronic fatigue syndrome (BMJ 2010;340:c738, doi:10.1136/bmj.c738) brings home the inadequacy of our current understanding of this condition, or group of conditions. The responses from patients, carers, and clinicians remind us that we remain largely in the dark about its causes and prognosis, there are no accepted diagnostic tests, and treatment options are limited ( Sufferers must also deal with social and (if they are doctors) professional stigmatisation, as dermatologist Stephanie Munn experienced (doi:10.1136/bmj.c1179).
Little wonder if many who live or work with chronic fatigue syndrome leapt at the news last October that scientists in Nevada had found a "highly significant association" between the condition and a newly discovered retrovirus, xenotropic murine leukaemia virus-related virus (XMRV). The case-control study published in Science was trumpeted, especially by the authors, as having found the cause of chronic fatigue syndrome, with promises of a diagnostic test and treatments to follow.
As an epidemiologist, Cathie Sudlow’s initial response was sceptical, quickly confirmed when she saw that the paper lacked basic methodological information (doi:10.1136/bmj.c1260). "Where were the details of the characteristics and selection procedures for the cases and controls, or of blinding of researchers to the case-control status of the samples? Where was the discussion of the potential role of bias and confounding?"
She and others sent electronic letters to the journal. Four months on, these have yet to appear. Meanwhile, and sadly for those whose hopes had been raised, the study has been refuted by three further case-control studies, one of them in the BMJ (doi:10.1136/bmj.c1018). Myra McClure and Simon Wessely point out that claims of association between retroviruses and diseases often fail to withstand the test of time (doi:10.1136/bmj.c1099).
The paper by Van Kuppeveld and colleagues is an unusual paper for the BMJ to publish. As our research highlights page explains, we would usually reject a small case-control study examining the prevalence of a virus in 20 year old blood samples. Instead we fast tracked it. We did this because it’s about an important and debilitating syndrome that’s often seen by generalists and because we felt it added to an important and highly controversial debate. We and our reviewers also thought it was well done.
So yes, let’s have more research into chronic fatigue syndrome, but let’s make sure it’s good enough research.
We’re all under pressure to innovate, so we need to ensure as far as possible that innovation brings improvement. This may not be the case with the new edition of America’s (and hence the world’s) Diagnostic Criteria for Psychiatric Disorders. Three years in the drafting, DSM-V is now out for consultation with a view to publication in 2013.
Our editorialist cries caution (doi:10.1136/bmj.c1168). DSM-IV was unwittingly responsible, says Allen Frances, for three "epidemics" of overdiagnosis. Rates of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism, and childhood bipolar disorders shot up when it was published, fuelled not only by DSM-IVs more inclusive diagnostic criteria but by zealous marketing of drugs to doctors and the public.
Now DSM-V threatens worse. It widens the criteria for several existing diagnoses and creates five new ones: binge eating, mixed anxiety depression, minor neurocognitive problems, risk of psychosis, and temper dysregulation. This could "expand the territory of mental disorder and thin the ranks of the normal," exposing vast numbers of new "patients" to avoidable harm.
Cite this as: BMJ 2010;340:c1266